# News

Wayana announces:

- Free AZ/EL Calculation
- Detailed Satellite List
- Generate Clarke Belt
- Calc Magnetic Declination
- Free TrackingSat Widget

Bookmark this website ! So you think you know TVRO? If you think that yes, congratulations! Go to drink a beer. If not, sharpen yours pencils, clear those calculators, and take a ctack at this quiz.

The best way to determine true north when installing a polar mount is:
a. line up with a magnetic compass needle
b. use a north-south street as a reference
c. calculate true north from magnetic compass heading
d. use a shadow produced by the sun precisely at 10:30 a.m.

TVRO antenna gain is directly proportional to:
a. f/D ratio
b. reflector area
c. focal length
d. reflector diameter

A polar-mounted antenna turns on an axis that is:
a. in line with the North Star (Polaris)
b. parallel to the Clarke Belt
c. parallel to the plane of the Earth's equator
d. roughly parallel to the Earth's axis

A TVRO antenna horizon-to-horizon mount is unique because it:
a. sees both horizons simultaneously
b. integrates the rotational drive into a polar mount
c. tracks all North and South American satellites
d. tracks east-to west as well as west-to-east

The gain of an antenna is a measure of its:
a. isolation
b. TI immunity
c. directivity
d. tracking ability
e. all of the above

A Ku-band system requires a smaller antenna than C-band because:
a. the Ku-band satellites have higher power (EIRP)
b. the Ku-band antenna has higher gain for a given size and therefore can be made smaller
c. the free space loss between satellite and TVRO is less at 12 GHz than at 4 GHz
d. a smaller antenna has a wider beamwidth and therefore more signal-gathering ability
e. all of the above

The smaller the antenna, the:
a. smaller the f/D ratio
b. better it performs at higher frequencies
c. higher the sidelobes
d. narrower the beamwidth
e. none of the above

Based on size alone, the difference in gain between an 8-foot and 10-foot diameter antenna should be:
a. 2.9 dB
b. 1.9 dB
c. 0.9 dB
d. 3.9 dB
e. 4.9 dB

A parabola's unique characteristic is that:
a. the phase front becomes linearlypolarized, allowing the frequencies to be reused
b. the physical and electrical distance from focal point to a distant point is the same regardless of reflective path taken
c. it provides the highest aperture efficiencies of any shape
d. it can be made flatter or deeper to provide a choice of f/D ratios
e. all of the above

What is aperture efficiency ?
a. the product of illumination efficiency, spillover efficiency, cross-pol efficiency, surface tolerance efficiency, phase efficiency and blockage efficiency
b. a measure of performance only in transmit antennas
c. the sum of the collimated and reflected energy minus the spillover energy from the feedhorn
d. the percentage of energy emitted by the feedhorn that illuminates the reflector
e. none of the above

Given an antenna noise temperature of 33 Kelvin degrees and gain of 39.6 dBi with an LNB noise temperature of 75 Kelvin degrees and gain of 50 dB, system G/T is:
a. 29.9 dB
b. 19.3 dB
c. 38.9 dB
d. 9.0 dB
e. none of the above

The beamwidth of a TVRO antenna is determined by its:
a. focal length
b. diameter
c. measured response between half-power points
d. a combination of all of the above

The G/T of the TVRO receiving system is:
a. a figure-of-merit of a satellite TVRO system
b. a measure of performance quality of the TVRO antenna
c. the ratio of antenna gain to system noise temperature in dB/K
d. all of the above

The f/D ratio of a parabolic reflector antenna determines:
a. structural rigidity of the dish
b. the gain of the antenna
c. the noise temperature of the system
d. the subtended beamwidth angle of the feed

For optimum antenna performance, the center of the feed should coincide with:
a. the polarization probe
b. the geocentric arc
c. the feed aperture
d. the focal point
e. all of the above

If you want to know how well your TVRO antenna is performing:
a. measure the signal at the LNB output
b. measure carrier-to-noise ratio
c. evaluate the footprint map
d. determine EIRP of transponder

The noise temperature of an LNB is specified in:
a. dB
b. ratio of G/T
c. Kelvin
d. dBi

The emerging de facto standard block downconverter frequency is:
a. 70 MHz
b. 250 to 750 MHz
c. 350 to 850 MHz
d. 950 to 1450 MHz

Dual LNBs must be used if:
a. you receive odd and even transponders simultaneously
b. you use a servo-motor polarizer
c. you intend to receiver Ku-band signals
d. you use a stereo processor

Which of the following would produce the greatest degradation to system performance ?
a. an increase in LNB noise temperature from 25 to 40 Kelvin degrees
b. an increased feed insertion loss from 0.1 to 0.5 dB
c. a decrease in LNB gain from 50 to 40 dB
d. a reduction in polarization isolation from 30 to 20 dB
e. all would have equal effect

Ku-band is commonly understood by the TVRO industry to mean:
a. 3.7 to 4.2 GHz
b. just below L-band
c. 11.7 to 12.7 GHz
d. just above K-band

Characteristic impedance of common TVRO coaxial cable is:
a. nominally 75 ohms
b. nominally 50 ohms
c. nominally 600 ohms
d. unimportant

Which coaxial cable has the highest loss ?
a. RG-6/U foam filled
b. RG-59/U foam filled
c. celular cable
d. RG-11/U

The downlink signals from the satellite are:
a. FM video and FM sound
b. AM video and FM sound
c. FM video and AM sound
d. none of the above

Terrestrial interference can be an increasing problem:
a. in the Spring of the year
b. when using low loss coaxial cable
c. when 2 degree spacing is implemented
d. in the Fall of the year

The NTSC signal has:
a. 525 vertical lines
b. 730 horizontal lines
c. 525 horizontal lines
d. 730 vertical lines

Two degree spacing between satellites in geosynchronous orbit corresponds to:
a. 900 miles
b. 1,500 kilometers
c. about 120 miles from equator
d. none of the above

The height orbit where the satellites are localized have altitude of:
a. 32,800 Km
b. 35,800 miles
c. 35,800 Km
d. 22,800 miles
e. none of the above

Sun outages at a satellite earth station site occur:
a. during a solar eclipse
b. near the times of the Spring and Fall equinox
c. when the sun passes between the satellite and the antenna
d. celular cabled. celular cable. four times a year

An inclinometer is useful for:
a. measuring the azimuth angle
b. setting the polar axis
c. determining the site latitude
d. none of the above

EIRP from a typical TV satellite is specified in:
a. dB
b. dBi
c. dBW
d. dBm

A power measurement of -15 dBm means:
a. 30 microwatts
b. 45 dB below 1 watt
c. 0.03 milliwatts
d. 15 dB below 1 milliwatt
e. all of the above

A typical EIRP value from a TV satellite in C-band is:
a. 20 dBW
b. 36 dBW
c. 43 dBW
d. 50 dBW

Which of the following statements is most true ?
a. the smaller the antenna, the higher the G/T
b. the higher the noise temperature of the LNB, the higher the G/T
c. the lower the losses in the feed, the lower the G/T
d. the higher the antenna elevation angle, the higher the G/T

A typical EIRP value from a TV satellite in ku-band is:
a. 25 dBW
b. 36 dBW
c. 33 dBW
d. 44 dBW

The audio subcarrier frequency in satellite receiver is tunable in:
a. 9.0 to 15.0 MHz
b. 50 Hz to 4.2 MHz
c. 5.4 to 8.2 MHz
d. 1.0 to 3.8 MHz

In video specifications, the output level in satellite receiver is adjusted in:
a. 0.5 volt p-p
b. 1.5 volt p-p
c. 1.0 volt p-p
d. 2.5 volt p-p

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